In addition to setting aside more than million acres of land in Alaska for conservation, it gave rural Alaskans priority for the subsistence harvest of fish and wildlife on Federal public lands—about million acres or more than 60 percent of the land within the state. ANILCA also required the creation of a system of regional advisory councils to enable rural residents to have a meaningful role in Federal subsistence management. Untilthe State of Alaska provided rural residents with this subsistence priority, in compliance with Federal law. As a result, the Federal government manages the subsistence harvest of fish and wildlife for rural Alaskans on Federal public lands and waters.
Used vegetable oil Wood Digestion of organic material to produce methane is becoming an increasingly popular method of biomass energy production. Materials such as waste sludge can be digested to release methane gas that can then be burnt to produce electricity.
Methane gas is also a natural by-product of landfills, full of decomposing waste, and can be harnessed here to produce electricity as well. The advantage in burning methane gas is that is prevents the methane from being released into the atmosphere, exacerbating the greenhouse effect. Although this method of biomass energy production is typically large scale done in landfillsit can be done on a smaller individual or community scale as well.
Environmental impacts of industrial agriculture[ edit ] Industrial agricultural production is highly resource and energy intensive. Industrial agriculture systems typically require heavy irrigationextensive pesticide and fertilizer applicationintensive tillageconcentrated monoculture production, and other continual inputs.
Substantial climate-disrupting carbon emissionsboosted by the transport of food over long distances, are of growing concern as the world faces such global crisis as natural resource depletion, peak oil and climate change.
Buying food from local farmers reduces carbon outputcaused by long-distance food transport, and stimulates the local economy. These vegetables and fruits are also grown and harvested within their suitable growing season.
Thus, seasonal food farming does not require energy intensive greenhouse production, extensive irrigation, plastic packaging and long-distance transport from importing non-regional foods, and other environmental stressors.
Local produce also contains less to no chemical residues from applications required for long-distance shipping and handling. As well as promoting localization of food, farmers markets are a central gathering place for community interaction.
A CSA consists of a community of growers and consumers who pledge to support a farming operation while equally sharing the risks and benefits of food production.
CSA's usually involve a system of weekly pick-ups of locally farmed vegetables and fruits, sometimes including dairy products, meat and special food items such as baked goods. Local food production ensures food security if potential transportation disruptions and climatic, economical, and sociopolitical disasters were to occur.
For more information on the environmental impact of meat production and consumption, see the ethics of eating meat. Reducing meat consumption, perhaps to a few meals a week, or adopting a vegetarian or vegan diet, alleviates the demand for environmentally damaging industrial meat production.
Buying and consuming organically raised, free range or grass fed meat is another alternative towards more sustainable meat consumption. Organic farming is a rapidly emerging trend in the food industry and in the web of sustainability. According to the USDA National Organic Standards Board NOSBorganic agriculture is defined as "an ecological production management system that promotes and enhances biodiversity, biological cycles, and soil biological activity.
Alaska Department of Fish and Game online electronic library Publications, Information & Education. Sustainable living is fundamentally the application of sustainability to lifestyle choice and decisions. One conception of sustainable living expresses what it means in triple-bottom-line terms as meeting present ecological, societal, and economical needs without compromising these factors for future generations. Unlike most editing & proofreading services, we edit for everything: grammar, spelling, punctuation, idea flow, sentence structure, & more. Get started now!
It is based on minimal use of off-farm inputs and on management practices that restore, maintain, or enhance ecological harmony.
The primary goal of organic agriculture is to optimize the health and productivity of interdependent communities of soil life, plants, animals and people. In addition, organic farming prohibits or strictly limits the use of manufactured fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators such as hormoneslivestock antibioticsfood additives and genetically modified organisms.
See organic certification for more information. Urban gardening[ edit ] "Edible landscaping": Qixia DistrictNanjingChina In addition to local, small-scale farms, there has been a recent emergence in urban agriculture expanding from community gardens to private home gardens.
With this trend, both farmers and ordinary people are becoming involved in food production. A network of urban farming systems helps to further ensure regional food security and encourages self-sufficiency and cooperative interdependence within communities.
For instance, vegetables and fruits raised within small-scale gardens and farms are not grown with tremendous applications of nitrogen fertilizer required for industrial agricultural operations. The nitrogen fertilizers cause toxic chemical leaching and runoff that enters our water tables.
Nitrogen fertilizer also produces nitrous oxidea more damaging greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide. Local, community-grown food also requires no imported, long-distance transport which further depletes our fossil fuel reserves.
Communities can work together in changing zoning limitations in order for public and private gardens to be permissible. Such sustainable, organic farming techniques include: Food preservation and storage[ edit ] Preserving and storing foods reduces reliance on long-distance transported food and the market industry.
Home-grown foods can be preserved and stored outside of their growing season and continually consumed throughout the year, enhancing self-sufficiency and independence from the supermarket. Food can be preserved and saved by dehydrationfreezingvacuum packingcanningbottlingpickling and jellying.
Sustainable transport A carsharing plug-in hybrid vehicle being used to drop off compost at an urban facility in Chicago. With rising peak oil concerns, climate warming exacerbated by carbon emissions and high energy prices, the conventional automobile industry is becoming less and less feasible to the conversation of sustainability.
Revisions of urban transport systems that foster mobility, low-cost transportation and healthier urban environments are needed. Such urban transport systems should consist of a combination of rail transportbus transportbicycle pathways and pedestrian walkways.
Public transport systems such as underground rail systems and bus transit systems shift huge numbers of people away from reliance on car mobilization and dramatically reduce the rate of carbon emissions caused by automobile transport.Subsistence has also become important to many non-Native Alaskans, particularly in rural Alaska.
Wildlife Find wildlife-related subsistence . 2 days ago · State and federal wildlife officials have apologized to Alaska Natives for the enforcement of migratory bird regulations that failed to consider the effects on subsistence practices.
The Alaska. SUBSISTENCE AND ECONOMIC. PLANNING Perhaps it is more difficult to see the effects of the Western economic system because the causes are not infections like measles, but are the fundamental and often subtle differences between the Yupik and Western mind and ways of doing things.
"If we buy the fact that subsistence living is . Alaska Native Subsistence: A Matter of Cultural Survival. Author. Thornton. Although various minor provisions for subsistence existed in Alaska laws and regulations prior to , as a result of the ANCSA, both the state and the federal governments passed major subsistence legislation.
"Subsistence living, a marginal way of life to most. Sustainable living is fundamentally the application of sustainability to lifestyle choice and decisions. One conception of sustainable living expresses what it means in triple-bottom-line terms as meeting present ecological, societal, and economical needs without compromising these factors for future generations.
Official Home Page for the Alaska Department of Fish and Game.