The defence of Socrates[ edit ] Socrates begins his legal defence by telling the jury that their minds were poisoned by his enemies, when they the jury were young and impressionable. That his false reputation as a sophistical philosopher comes from his enemies, all of whom are malicious and envious of him, yet must remain nameless — except for the playwright Aristophaneswho lampooned him Socrates as a charlatan-philosopher in the comedy play The Clouds BC.
Although it contains its dramatic moments and it employs certain literary devices, it is not a play, a novel, a story; it is not, in a strict sense, an essay. It is a kind of extended conversation that embraces a central argument, an argument that is advanced by the proponent of the argument, Socrates.
It is Plato's intent in this dialogue to establish, philosophically, the ideal state, a state that would stand as a model for all emerging or existing societies currently functioning during Plato's time and extending into our own times.
And we are to infer that any proposed changes in the policy of effecting justice in any state would have to meet the criteria of the ideal state: Since its first appearance, the Republic has traditionally been published in ten books, probably from its having been so divided into ten "books" in its manuscript form.
In order to clarify its argument, this Note further subdivides those ten books in its discussion. The Socratic Method Socrates' method of engaging conversations with his fellow citizens has come to be known in history as the Socratic Dialectic or the Socratic Method, and its method of pursuing a given truth is still adopted by many university and public school teachers to the present day.
It is the method that Plato adopted for the Republic and for all of his Dialogues conversations. Socrates' and Plato's method of opening a dialogue is in almost every instance to pose a question of meaning to ask for a definition of a term or terms for the sake of forming up a logical argument.
For example, Socrates might ask at the outset of a dialogue: And then Socrates might ask for examples of courageous, or virtuous, or honest behavior; or he might ask for analogues things similar to those things.
Thus Socrates conversed with the young men of Athens, young men who were apparently disenchanted with their teachers whom their parents had hired and who apparently did not know as much as Socrates knew. But Socrates, who some claimed to be the wisest man, claimed to know nothing except that every person should carefully determine what he thinks he knows.
He said that the unexamined life is not worth living. He taught that men claimed to come to wisdom through poetry and argument and music, when it was plain that they did not even know what they were doing.
And he also taught that politicians claimed to serve justice and to sit in judgment on their fellow citizens when at the same time those same politicians and "leaders" of the state could not even define justice and might, in fact, be said to be culpable guilty of certain injustices perpetrated against their fellow citizens.
How, Socrates asked, can any man claim to serve justice when that same man cannot even define justice? The question is still relevant in the twenty-first century. The Setting for and the Speakers in the Dialogue As in all of the Platonic dialogues, the participants in the debate are friends or acquaintances of the central speaker, Socrates, and they conduct their conversations in the house of one of the participants.
The dialogue in the Republic takes place in Cephalus' house; Cephalus is an older man, a wealthy and retired merchant.
He has assembled several friends and acquaintances in his house on a feast-day in honor of the Thracian goddess, Bendis the Greek mythological goddess Artemis, goddess of the moon. Some of the guests simply audit the debate and remain silent; some are very minor participants in the dialogue. The main speakers are Socrates the persona for Plato, as in all the dialogues ; Cephalus; Polemarchus, Cephalus' son; Thrasymachus, a teacher of argument, a Sophist; and Glaucon and Adeimantus, Plato's elder brothers.
Scott Buchanan, whose suggested etymologies of the names I have adopted, says that Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus show themselves to be caricatures of the three classes in the state developed in Book IV, and that they are more fully developed in Book VIII.The Apology of Socrates, by Plato, is a Socratic dialogue in three parts that cover the Trial of Socrates ( BC): (i) the legal self-defence of Socrates, (ii) the verdict of .
The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: Res Publica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around BC, concerning justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state, and the just man.
It is Plato's best-known work, and has proven to be one of the world's most influential works of philosophy and political theory, both intellectually and.
Mar 07, · Socrates, via Plato's Republic, is quoted as saying that justice is goodness, but that the true concept of justice can only be determined through deep thought, consideration, and alphabetnyc.com: Resolved.
Thrasymachus' definition is the central challenge of the rest of the Republic, as Socrates tries to prove him wrong. Plato means for Thrasymachus to seem foolish and unpleasant, and his demand for pay, customary for Sophists, is a deliberate blot on his character. Ethics and politics in Socrates’ defense of justice Rachana Kamtekar 1. ethics and politics in socrates’ defense of justice In the Republic, Socrates argues that justice ought to be valued both for its own sake and for the sake of its consequences (a1–3). In his classic paper “A Fallacy in Plato’s Republic,” David Sachs ( At the beginning of Plato’s Republic you can see Socrates questioning Cephalos, then Polemarchus and finally Thracymachus about what they claim justice is. The historical Socrates may well have done something very much like this.
The Republic moves beyond this deadlock. Nine more books follow, and Socrates develops a rich and complex theory of justice. Nine more books follow, and Socrates develops a rich and complex theory of .
Socrates Justice - Law and Disorder looks at the decision Socrates has to make while in his cell, awaiting his execution. Chronologically though, it follows Socrates’ trial as seen in the Apology and slots in before his final death in Phaedo.
Crito is actually the shortest of these three dialogues, For Plato and for Socrates, the Laws. Yet because Socrates links his discussion of personal justice to an account of justice in the city and makes claims about how good and bad cities are arranged, the Republic sustains reflections on political questions, as well.