The idea that our minds are susceptible to systematic errors is now generally accepted.
Of course the notion of a Golden Age has its share of reputable disputants. No less than Eddie Romero, who surged forward at the start of what may be considered our filmic Golden Age II, cited ancient Greece in claiming that no such period of clear and concentrated artistic achievement could be reasonably circumscribed anywhere.
On the other hand lies a just-as-ancient necessity of defining parameters for purposes of easier classification and, more important, to enable contemporary observers to draw significant lessons therefrom. Presuming that Golden Ages do exist, no other period becomes more needful in finding out how and why they do than that immediately following the conclusion of such a one.
Rather than despair over our modern-day limitations in the face of such insurmountable criteria of excellence, I believe we could do well enough in assessing ourselves for more sober, though perhaps less immortalizing, reasons.
A limited period in a specific field, defined according to the concentration of output relative to periods preceding and succeeding it, should prove adequate for the moment.
All, however, agree to the inclusion of the entire decade of the s. The most important feature of this period was the political stability brought about by postwar reconstruction and the aggressive suppression of the Communist insurgency, paralleled in film by the stabilization of the studio system.
That this phase ever came to a close indicates the short-sightedness of the solutions being applied. Hence the interval between the first and the second Golden Ages saw the rise of the independents and the superstars, backgrounded by the revitalization of the peasant-based insurgency and an engineered economic instability that paved the way for the imposition and eventual acceptance of fascist rule.
A casual view of the products of the pre-martial law seventies reveals what we might have been headed for: Apparently neutral or even antipathetic projects actually allowed for a lot of leeway in the selection of material and permutations of form and expression.
Moreover, regional Cebuano-language cinema had mellowed at the latter portion of a wondrously long curve, providing assurances of alternatives for Manila-based practitioners which included Emmanuel H. Ismael Bernal came up with the last major black-and-white Filipino film and the most important debut of his generation with Pagdating sa Dulo.
Lino Brocka, who was to share with Bernal the rivalry for artistic supremacy in the Golden Age that was to come, rebounded quick with a pair of highly inspired komiks-adapted titles for his studio base, Lea Productions, namely Stardoom and Tubog sa Ginto, plus an otherwise effective Fernando Poe Jr.
This era, rather than the mid-seventies as commonly supposed, also signalled the maturation of Celso Ad. In another Poe-starrer, Asedillo, as well as in a horrific bomba entry, Nympha, he exhibited a fascination for unconventional visual values and thematic daring, properties that were to serve him well during the latter part of the decade.
Other names associated with academe- and theater-based artist circles made their mark with relatively serious attempts, including Elwood Perez with Blue Boy and Nestor U.
Torre with Crush Ko si Sir. Perhaps more significantly, a number of scriptwriters who were to figure prominently during the forthcoming Golden Age first figured here, with either solo or shared credits: Basta sa Maynila Pa Rin Ako!
Brocka, after writing for Luciano B. At least an excess of film awards, a heritage of the just-concluded second Golden Age, ensures that truly deserving products will now have a greater chance of acquiring recognition, no matter how belated.
It was Brocka, however, who returned from a period of inactivity with two productions that combined the then-impossible characteristics of being both major and personal, Tinimbang Ka Ngunit Kulang in and Maynila: Sa mga Kuko ng Liwanag in The direct beneficiaries of this renewal of artistic consciousness in film included Brocka himself, with his three-in-one Tatlo, Dalawa, Isa; Perez with his three-in-one Isang Gabi, Tatlong Babae!
Back to top Golden Age II: Beginnings Maynila could properly serve as the marker for the second Golden Age of Philippine cinema.
There are, however, other attributable semi- or even non-industrial reasons for the phenomenon. The relative sanguinity brought about by the sudden infusion of foreign loans before these assumed malignant proportionscoupled with the enforced stability of early martial rule, encouraged several newly prosperous entities to invest their money in a business that could be both glamorous and profitable.
The youthful mass audience of the early seventies was prepared for a divergence and diversification of its favorite diversion, which was to culminate in a sophistication of its command of visual language that may still be extant at present. Rocio, took over after his death and, for some reason or other, saw fit to return to his pre-martial law policy of libertarianism — which the military was to exploit as an excuse for its small-scale takeover of film-censorship prerogatives.
A cursory look at the Filipino filmography would reveal a handful of other new names which would probably be of interest to those determined to delve deeper into the dynamics of the period. Again, however, the writers ought to sustain more productive study than the also-rans: Clodualdo del Mundo Jr.
The already mentioned developments actually consist of the introduction of award-giving mechanisms by three sectors who were to make bids of varying degrees of urgency on mass media in general, and film in particular: Significantly, the first Catholic Mass Media Awardee for film was Nunal sa Tubig, which had seen rough sailing with the censors.
The government, for its part, centralized all the annual city festivals in the newly organized metropolitan area in one major undertaking held during the lucrative spell between Christmas and New Year. The first few editions were either idealistic or disorganized or both, so that sensible film producers tended toward a policy of reserving prestige productions for this season.
The Urian remained the most serious award-giving body for the most part of its first decade of existence, employing a system of viewing assignments, repeated screenings, and exhaustive deliberations that would have proved perfect had it been implemented conscientiously and consistently.
This point was to be driven home as early as the next year of its existence. Such subjectivity of vision, coupled by a preference for underdog nominees, prompted Brocka, the fourth best-director awardee, to castigate the group and reject its future commendations.
The first was of course the already described beginning, that yielded Maynila on one end and Ganito Kami Noon on the other.Apr 22, · Florida's digital media industry association, Digital Media Alliance Florida, defines digital media as the creative convergence of digital arts, science, technology and business for human expression, communication, social interaction and education.
Building theories is important for advancing knowledge of management. But it is also a highly challenging task.
Although there is a burgeoning literature that offers many theorizing tools, we lack a coherent understanding of how these tools fit together—when to use a particular tool and which combination of tools can be used in the theorizing process.
Yet, most critics would argue that there is a sense in which she is answering Weil’s arguments. Weil was a pacifist whose essay is a condemnation of the substance of The Iliad, that is, warfare, whereas Bespaloff reads the poem as a heroic struggle against the enemy aggressor.
It is ironic and unfortunate that only in this anthology's most technologically oriented essay, and not at all in its moral-theological essays, does some appreciation of the force of just-war.
Basing a business on an open source strategy is undoubtedly challenging, because no matter how many times you quote Richard Stallman that software freedom means “free speech,” not “free beer,” there is a persistent expectation that open source means free: free software, free updates, free knowledge, free support.
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